Category Archives for Toddler Yoga

Summer 2018 Class Registration & Schedule Changes

Classes for crawling babies and older toddlers and families are offered in multi-week class series; registration is required, no drop-ins. Summer Saturday classes run from the first weekend in June until mid July.  Tues-Thu classes begin after school closes and run into early August.

Weekly Early Childhood Yoga Classes

With fun, age-appropriate poses, our yoga for babies and toddlers classes focus on breathing exercises, movement games, rhythm, and songs for little ones and caregivers to do together. Yoga supports motor skills, language acquisition, and social-emotional development. Learn more.

Tot Yoga 

for crawling babies to 24 mo old toddlers with parent ore caregiver

Little Families Yoga (Preschoolers)

for 21 mo toddlers to 4 yr old preschoolers with parent or caregiver, younger siblings welcome

Younger siblings are welcome in Preschooler Yoga. Walking siblings 1 year or older may register for half price. No charge for babes in arms. Nannies, nanny-shares, grandparents, and other caregivers welcome. Up 2 two caregivers may attend weekly. Adults participate in class, but no yoga experience is required. Learn more about early childhood yoga.

kids yoga class, prek

Kids Yoga & Mindfulness

A kids yoga class encourages children to move creatively in a non-competitive environment while honoring each child’s unique expression of the poses. Breathing Space classes incorporate age-appropriate poses, breathing, movement, games, music, and art. Classes often revolve around a philosophical or natural theme and always include some form of quiet relaxation.

Our summer classes for bigger kids are ideal for students ready for class on their own. We’ll do poses, games, stories and relaxation every week.

Partial Registration and Summer Classes

We know that summer schedules are all over the place. For example, you may have vacation scheduled or your yogi is with younger siblings and the family nanny some weeks and signed up for camps other weeks, but you’d still like to participate in yoga. We here you!

Partial registration allows families who know they will miss one or two classes to commit only to weeks they know they are available, but there are some differences between partial registration and regular registration.

  1. Makeup carry-overs do not apply. You can’t take a makeup from a previous semester and apply it to partial registration and you can’t carry over a missed class into fall. You are already scheduling your missed classes.
  2. Registration requires two steps. You must purchase your partial registration AND email to schedule your class dates. Without the second step, your space is not reserved in class and, if a class fills, you may not have a spot.
  1. Finally, sibling discounts are not automatic for partial registration. Register your older child and make sure the younger child(ren) is(are) in your account profile. When you email your date reservation mention the sibling and we’ll set that up on the back end and charge the card on file.

Summer series are 6-8 classes long partial registration can be 1 or 2 weeks shorter than the full class.  Applies to Tot Yoga (crawling-24 mo), Preschooler/Little Family Yoga (21 mo – 4 yrs), Kids Yoga & Mindfulness (4-8 yrs). 

Schedule Changes for Prenatal & Baby & Me Yoga

prenatal yoga classStarting in June, our weekend prenatal and baby yoga classes move to Sunday afternoon/evening at Shenanigans Art Space! Hopefully this shift better accommodates weekend travel, plans, and nap schedules. Please contact us with any questions.

Prenatal Yoga:

Baby & Me Yoga

Sign Up Options:

  • Commit to 5-7 consecutive classes for a discount; $17 per class (late registration available until almost the half way point of a series), makeup policies apply.
  • Purchase a 10-class pass, $18 per class.
  • Pay by the class, $20 per class.

baby being massagedInfant Massage

Learn time-tested massage techniques to soothe and connect with your baby. Learn more or sign up for a summer series:

The ideal time to start this class is when your baby is 2-6 months old, but younger and older babies are welcome.  Our 3-week series is $96 per baby and up to 2 adults, sibling discount for twins depends on how many adults attend (contact us). Class instruction is progressive, so drop-ins are not allowed. Parents who miss a week are welcome to make up that same week in a subsequent series.

Spring 2018 Class Registration

With fun, age-appropriate poses, our yoga for babies and toddlers classes focus on breathing exercises, movement games, rhythm, and songs for little ones and caregivers to do together. Yoga supports motor skills, language acquisition, and social-emotional development. Learn more.
tot yoga collageClasses for crawling babies and older toddlers and families are offered in multi-week class series; registration is required, no drop-ins. Spring classes begin April 3 and continue through the beginning of June. Because birthdays and maternity leaves are difficult to schedule with semesters, Baby & Me Yoga does allow drop-in students. Learn more.

Weekly Early Childhood Yoga Classes

tot balanceTot Yoga 

for crawling babies to 24 mo old toddlers with parent ore caregiver

Toddler Family Yoga

for steady walkers through 3 yrs old toddlers with parent or caregiver, younger siblings welcome

Preschooler Yoga 

for 21 mo toddlers to 4 yr old preschoolers with parent or caregiver, younger siblings welcome

Younger siblings are welcome in Toddler or Preschooler Yoga. Walking siblings 1 year or older may register for half price. No charge for babes in arms. Nannies, nanny-shares, grandparents, and other caregivers welcome. Up 2 two caregivers may attend weekly. Adults participate in class, but no yoga experience is required. Learn more about early childhood yoga.

Infant Massage Classes

Massage curriculum is progress and taught over several weeks, no drop-ins. Learn more about Infant Massage classes.

Baby & Me Yoga

moms and babies in yoga classis a blend of fun, yoga-inspired movements and postures for baby and postpartum-appropriate yoga for mom/caregiver. Because it’s hard to get birth dates and maternity leaves to line up with series dates, we welcome drop-in students to attend prenatal and postnatal classes.

  • 12 noon  Tue with Kaydee @ Realignment Studio
  • 9:30 AM Sat with Erika @ Realignment Studio

Commit by the class or for the full multi-week series for a discount. Read more about Baby & Me Yoga or register for Prenatal or Baby & Me Yoga.

Fall Family Classes Enrolling Now

tot balanceClasses feature age-appropriate poses, songs, activities, and more. Read full class descriptions on our early childhood or kids yoga pages.

Nov/Dec Weekday Early Childhood Classes

Late fall classes start Nov 1-7 and run through December 13-15, unless noted. See links below for descriptions and details. 6 week series costs $108.

Register ButtonTot Yoga (crawling-24 mo)

Preschooler Yoga (21 mo-4 yrs, younger siblings welcome)

Register Button

Kids & family classes are offered in multi-class semesters, registration required. Fall series are 6 to 10 weeks long, depending on the day and venue. Price varies by length of series. See individual links for details.

Need to carry-over a makeup class from the last series? Use the code “sessionmakeup” at checkout to reduce registration price by one class.  Only applies to  full season registration. Read our makeup class FAQs.

Due to holidays and church events in December, Saturday classes at Christ Church end on Nov 18. No classes Columbus Day weekend or the Wed-Sun of Thanksgiving weekend. 

See also our classes at Brent ElementaryCapitol Hill Montessori at Logan and Peabody Elementary. Register through the school aftercare provider.

Preschooler Family Yoga – Fun and Fitness – FAQ

Tot does toes-to-nose posePeople are sometimes surprised when I tell them I teach yoga to 2 year olds. “My toddler would never sit still for a yoga class,” they say.

I hope no one ever suggests that they should!

Preschooler, Little Families, and Tot Yoga classes incorporate lots of playful yoga poses, gross-motor activities, and age-appropriate games, kid-friendly songs and rhymes, and breath awareness exercises, and a little bit of relaxation for both little ones and their parents. We move all over the room, we use props in fun and creative ways, and we engage toddlers and preschoolers in developmentally-appropriate fun.

Sure stillness happens, but we measure that in sweet moments (not minutes).

Frequently Asked Questions

We often here from parents that they are hesitant to enroll if they aren’t sure their child will enjoy a class. We get it. That’s why we have our:

No Risk Refund Policy – Not sure if a kids & family series class will be right for you or your child? Register and come to the first class. If you notify us in writing within 48 hours after the first class that you will not be able to continue the session, we refund all but $2o for that first class.

We are also very flexible about switching classes for students who have nap time shifts during the course of a series. For example, if your child is enrolled in an 11 am class and starts napping at that time, we’ll happily switch her into one of our 9 or 9:30 am classes instead.

Yep. We move a ton.

Generally, if you are enrolling in a class for your child’s age, we are prepared for your child to behave in age-appropriate ways.

kids yoga bowFor Little Families Yoga (2-4 yrs), we don’t use yoga mats and instead move all over the room. Some of our students are always on the go and that’s really quite alright. Some toddlers seriously need to move in order to pay attention. Those are the students parents assure me do the yoga poses at home, just never in class. Sometimes those students join in briefly whenever their favorite activities come up and then go back to running in circles. It’s all good.

For Kids or Family Yoga (ages 3-6, or 4+), we do use mats and are beginning to learn to be on the mats for much of the class. Class is still super active, we move off mats for all sorts of games, and we don’t expect stillness from young children.

If your child has special needs, it is helpful to check in ahead of time so the instructor can be prepared and think through lessons and activities with your child’s needs in mind. We are happy to have you enroll and decide after the first class or two if it is the right fit. Again though, check in with the instructor. Parents are typically more worried about possible disruptive behavior than our yoga teachers and will work with you on strategies to help your child succeed in class.

Absolutely. Your child is welcome to bring any grownup they want with them to class. Up to 2 caregivers may attend class on a weekly basis. Additional visitors may attend occasionally and are encouraged to participate. Please be considerate of space constraints when bringing guests.

marching game, preschooler yogaYes. Siblings attending the same class are eligible for 1/2 price registration. Children older than 1 yr must register (no charge for infants younger than that). See our pricing and discounts page.
Typically we can accommodate siblings 1 year younger than the stated age range, so 1 yr olds in Little Families Yoga (2-4 yrs) and 3 yr olds in Family Yoga (4-8 yrs).

Amalie teaching Little Families, preschooler yogaProbably Toddler Family Yoga, but get in touch if you think the slower, slightly less boisterous environment of Tot Yoga might be a better fit. Learn more about Early Childhood Yoga classes.

Yes! That’s Tot Yoga, which is for crawlers (or near crawlers) and walkers up to 24 months.

Nope, sorry. We don’t offer drop-in options for classes for crawling or older children or trial classes during the regular session.  Children really do need the consistency of a weekly class both for comfort and so they can best learn and drop-ins can be disruptive to the class routine. Read more.

tot yoga game with bolstersSince it often takes several classes for a child to settle in, dropping in once is not really the best indicator of whether your child will enjoy class. However, we get that it can be tough to commit to a class when you can’t imagine what happens or how your child will react, so:

  1. We occasionally offer trial/drop-in days, when the teacher will spend a little extra time explaining the class routine and parents get a chance to see a class in action.
  2. We have a no-risk refund policy. If you register for a class and decide for any reason it’s a bad fit for you, your child, or your schedule, and you decide early in the series, you can drop the class and get a prorated refund. See details.

We also understand that life is unpredictable and have a generous makeup policy for families that wish to commit to a series but know they will miss a class or two.

Tot yogaAbsolutely. It sometimes takes a few weeks for our more reserved students to get comfortable enough to participate. That’s one of the reasons we offer classes in 6-10 week series rather than drop-in. Toddlers especially need time to get used to a space, a group of people and an instructor.

Even once they are comfortable, some more reserved little ones may be more watchers than doers in class. That doesn’t mean they are not learning and they may be more inclined to practice at home.

tot yoga kicking cobraWe do expect parent participation. The more yoga you do in class the more your child will do.

While parents should expect to move quite a lot, we will be doing yoga appropriate for the child’s age range, so it’s probably not a workout for the grownups as compared to an adult class.

Amalie teaching Little Families, preschooler yogaPoses and activities are designed with toddlers/preschoolers in mind. While your instructor will likely be able to make suggestions, we expect adults to take care of their own bodies during class.

It’s rarely a problem. Pregnant moms often skip or modify belly-down poses and anything else that doesn’t feel right and adults with special conditions adjusting accordingly.

The biggest challenge is probably for adults who have significant difficulty getting up and down from the floor. I’ve had mobility-challenged caregivers, usually older nannies or grandparents, do very few of the poses with no problem. My suggestion is to try it and see how it goes.

Do note that several of our class venues are down a flight of stairs (strollers can be left locked outside). Our Saturday and Sunday class venues are handicap accessible.

Benefits of Yoga for Babies & Toddlers – Crawlers and Walkers

Yoga class provides a safe space for babies, toddlers and their caregivers to explore movement milestones, social-emotional development, and connect with each other and other parents and children. Taking class with your tot or toddler can offer some of the following benefits you might not have thought about:

Tot does toes-to-nose poseLanguage development – Tot yoga classes expose babies and toddlers to language through words with actions, songs, and attention to body awareness. By connecting movement with language, yoga supports the way language development is already happening in your child’s brain.

“University of Washington research in 7- and 11-month-old infants shows that speech sounds stimulate areas of the brain that coordinate and plan motor movements for speech.” – University of Washington ILABS

Comprehension of words relies on areas of the brain associated with motor control as well as ‘classic’ language centers, researchers report.” – Neuroscience News
Tot rings chime, yoga classSensory stimulation and awareness – Babies need tons of sensory input to train their brain to process information. By engaging in unique physical play during yoga, babies stimulate their vestibular and proprioceptive systems as well as senses of touch, hearing, and sight.
“Stimulation through the senses of touch, hearing, seeing, smelling, and tasting directly affect the sensory neurons and help in establishing these connections. According to research, an infant’s brain is producing 2-3 million synapses per second!” – Bright Hub Education
Tot practices balanceVestibular and proprioceptive input – These two senses related to movement and touch are so important they get their own entry.   Baby’s vestibular system, which tells him where he is in space, has been developing since just a few weeks after conception. Proprioception tells him where he in in relationship to himself. Our vestibular sensors are primarily in our inner ear while our proprioceptive sensors are in our muscles, joints, and bones. Together, they are make up our kinesthetic awareness.
Maryann Harman explains in EarlyChildhood News that movement and early childhood development specialists believe that “[all] learning in the first fifteen months of life is centered on the vestibular system development” and that the vestibular system is very closely tied to language development.

“[W]hen our vestibular system is not functioning properly, we often have auditory processing problems in addition to difficulty with balance, coordination, and eye muscle control.” – PediaStaff

“The vestibular system coordinates eye and head movements. Without this coordination, it may be challenging for children to complete everyday activities such as copying from a white board in their classroom …” – Sprouts Child Development Intiative

Learn more about early childhood yoga classes for crawling babies, toddlers, and preschoolers.



Spring Yoga & Pilates Classes Enrolling Now

Tot Yoga - class for baby and toddler crawling to 2, with parentsJoin us for spring and summer kids and preteen/teen or early childhood and family yoga classes:

Early Childhood & Family Classes

Our early childhood classes are offered in 6-week series for $96,  Sibling/multiple registration/sibling discount automatically applied at checkout. No drop-ins. Students who must miss a class or a family member can take a makeup in any other appropriate class, including adult yoga or Pilates classes. Up to two parents may attend these classes with the registered child.

Tot - downdogPreschooler Yoga welcomes younger siblings: 12-21 month old siblings may register for 1/2 price; no charge for non-walking infants. Enroll your 21-month-4 year-old and then contact us about adding your younger child.

Kids, Tweens and Teens

Sunday afternoon kids and preteen classes are cancelled due to low enrollment. Help us decide the best time to offer these classes in the fall by completing our survey.

Our kids to teen classes are offered in 7 and 8-week series. Sibling/multiple registration/sibling discount automatically applied at checkout. No drop-ins. Students who must miss a class or a family member can take a makeup in any other appropriate class, including adult yoga or Pilates classes. Classes for kids and teens are for participants only. Family members are kindly asked not to watch class.

Prenatal and Postnatal

  • Baby & Me YogaBaby & Me Yoga - 1 (newborn to pre-crawling, blend of activities for baby and postpartum appropriate yoga for mom/caregiver)
    Tue @ 11:30 am, Sat @ 10:30 am

Our prenatalpostnatal and Pilates classes are offered in multi-week series, mostly 6-week sessions. Registration is open now for sessions beginning the week of April 4.

Adult classes and those welcoming pre-crawling infants, including Baby & Me Yoga, welcome drop-ins if there is space. No drop-ins when class is marked FULL, or if indicated on individual class notes. No online reservations for drop-ins; just arrive a few minutes early. Learn more about dropping into class. All classes have minimum of 6 enrolled students to run.

Adult Classes

Our adult and prenatal or postnatal classes, including Baby & Me Yoga, allow drop-ins ($20 + tax) if there is room in the series. Learn more about dropping into class.

Full Registration for Kids & Family Classes

Breathing Space does not allow single class drop-ins to kids & family classes for crawling babies or older children. Why?

Session Commitment is Best for Both Students and the Program

We’ve written before about the benefits of committing to a weekly yoga class. Children, even more than adults, benefit from the consistency and progressive teaching enabled by full registration.

Kids yoga operates in an unusual context. While adult yoga classes are very often drop-in based, you cannot just occasionally show up to any other kind of teacher-directed children’s class. There’s no drop-in ballet, gymnastics, music, art, karate, etc. All of these programs require registration in a series of classes or monthly membership. This creates a stable class and allows lessons to build upon on each other.

Session Commitment Encourages Consistent Attendance

As a parent, there are tons of demands on my time and regularly attending a class requires commitment. Paying ahead of time gives me that sense of obligation to actually go every week. This is true for me with my own classes and it’s doubly true for me to motivate my child out of the house, even for activities she (or we both) adore.

Session Commitment Enhances the Student Experience

As a children’s instructor, I find:

  1. Drop-ins detract from the experience of the students who have committed to a full session of classes because my attention is drawn to the new student – on everything from taking payment and filling in the parent on policies, facilities, and expectations, to making the new child feel comfortable.
  2. Drop-in classes are not in the best interest of the child. It often takes 3 or 4 classes for a child, especially a toddler, to feel comfortable with a new place, new people, and a new routine. Children benefit from repetition and structure. Since drop-in students tend to only show up once or twice a session, they miss out on the full benefits of the experience.

But . . .

There are two major objections that I hear from parents to registering for an entire session:

  1. That they aren’t sure if class will be right for their child. We get that. It can be hard to even imagine a toddler or preschooler yoga class if you’ve never attended one.

    That’s why we offer a No Risk Refund Policy – Not sure if class will be right for you or your child? Register and come to the first class. If you notify us in writing within 24 hours of class that you will not be able to continue the session, you will pay only $20 for the class you attended. (See refund policies for more information.)
  1. That they have travel or other schedule obligations that prevent full attendance. We understand schedules can be tricky. We intentionally skip holiday weekends and other high-travel times and offer a very generous make-up policy. To make up a missed class:
    • Any family member may take any other appropriate class during the same session – this means a similar kids class or parents can take an adult class;
    • If there is space in your class, you may bring a friend as your make-up class. Please confirm space availability with your instructor.
    • You may carry one class over into a subsequent session by using a make-up discount on your next registration.

Which Parent-Child Yoga Class Should I Take?

bsfy-open-house 711We have 4 different parent-child yoga classes on our schedule and several people have asked, which one should they should sign up for? To answer that, pick the best description that fits your situation:

If you have one child, pick the appropriate age range:

If you have a 3 year old or children in multiple age ranges, you have a choice of classes:

Preschooler Yoga (20 months – 3 yrs)

  • bsfy-open-house 698Very active, playful class with simple movements and beginning breath and body awareness exercises
  • Beginning to incorporate imaginative play and storytelling in relation to the yoga poses and activities
  • Games are very simple, usually consisting of only one or two steps: jumping in and out of circles, following directions …
  • Partner poses are very simple
  • Typically only uses yoga mats as a prop or for relaxation
  • Good for young 3 year olds or reserved children likely to stay close to their parent during class
  • Appropriate for younger siblings younger than 2 to participate (may enroll at half price, non walking infants free)

Family Yoga (3-8 yrs)

  • breathing space 744Still active and playful, in fact a bit more athletic as coordination improves
  • More imagination/pretend, more and more involved stories
  • Games become more complicated and start to have rules: move & freeze, musical mats …
  • Partner poses with parents begin to be recognizable as yoga poses
  • Uses mats for the majority of the class, but children will move around the room for many activities
  • Good for older 3 year olds (and 4+) as well as very verbal or out-going 3 year olds
    Also good for 3-year olds who’ve taken our classes for several months and would enjoy the challenge of keeping up with the big kids
  • Appropriate for younger siblings 2 years and older or older siblings 10 and younger to participate (may enroll at half price)

bsfy-open-house 702All classes can accommodate younger or older siblings, so what do you do if both children are not within the same class age range?

You have multiple children to enroll:

  • A 3 year old and a 1 year old – Preschooler Yoga (2-4 yrs) with the younger one enrolled at half price
  • A 5/6 year old and a 2 year old – Family Yoga (3-8 years) with the younger enrolled at half price

Kids & Family Winter Schedule Preview Classes

During our Winter Solstice Open House from December 19-21, join us  for any of our usual weekend schedule classes for $15 per class in advance ($20 in person, makeup credits and class passes accepted). Great opportunity for new students to try a class before registering for the January session.


  • Tot Yoga - class for baby and toddler crawling to 2, with parents9:30 am – Little Families Yoga (ages 2-4 years) with Amalie – This class is for yogis ages 4 and younger with a parent or other favorite grown-up. Join us for toddler-friendly yoga poses songs, stories, games and relaxation for the whole family. The majority of activities will be focused toward almost-2- to 4-year-olds and their parents, but younger siblings are welcome and will be included in the fun. No yoga experience is required. Registration for this series is by child. Siblings may register at a discount. No charge for non-walkers younger than 1 year.
  • 10:30 am – Family Yoga (normally Kids Yoga ages 5-8) with Amalie – Families with children ages 4 and older are encouraged to join us for age-appropriate yoga poses, breathing exercises, songs, movement games and relaxation, with an emphasis on interactive and partner activities for kids and adults to do together. Parents should plan fully participate in class, but no yoga experience is required. Yoga mats are used in this class so feel free to bring your own or borrow one from us. (Note: Our 10:30 am class is usually for children ages 5-8 without their parents, but we are inviting parents to join in for this special class.)


  • 8:45 am – Prenatal Yoga with Jen – In this all-level class, expecting moms will cultivate the flexibility, concentration and strength needed during the transformative time of pregnancy and childbirth. Enjoy the community of other expecting mothers while we practice modified Hatha Yoga postures, breath work, vocal toning and meditation. No previous yoga experience necessary.
  • 10:15 am – Little Families Yoga – Toddler (walking-3 years) with Jen – In this class for families of toddlers, we’ll do poses, songs, and games while little ones explore new movement and social skills. Parents fully participate in class but no yoga experience or yoga mat is required. Simply wear comfortable clothes and be prepared to move. Best for walkers through 3 year old preschoolers. Crawlers are welcome to join in for half price, contact us about registering at a discount. No charge for pre-crawling younger siblings.


Books in Yoga Class: Promoting Literacy, Emotional Intelligence and Fun

preschooler yoga, story timeBreathing Space Family Yoga children’s yoga instructors often use books in class as storytime before relaxation, to spark discussion, or as inspiration for an entire theme. Books can help illustrates yogic values – peace, love, friendship, feelings, compassion, honesty – or enhance children’s physical and emotional awareness.

Using books in class, and reading in general,

  • increases creativity and imagination,
  • enourages students to empathize with others,
  • helps with language accquisition,
  • enhances logical thinking, and
  • improves concentration and discipline.

A key benefit of yoga for children is how the practice helps them develop better emotional regulation skills. Incorporating books like The Way I Feel by Janan Cain and My Many Colored Days by Dr. Seuss sends the message that strong feelings are ok even if acting on them might not be.

At least every couple of months, I do a dance theme in my preschool yoga class, after which I feel compelled to read Hilda Must Be Dancing by Karma Wilson.  I love that Hilda figures out a way to express that dance that is in her soul no matter what obstacles may seem to be in her way.

One of my favorite books to read in preschool yoga class is Jamberry by Bruce Deegan. The story follows the fancifal journey of a bear and his boy through what is clearly jam country. The kids love identifying the animals and actions in the story and it’s fun when they figure out the fantasy elements: skating on jam, rabbits playing a brass band, etc. But the signature characteristic of my reading is most definitely that (in our household at least) Jamberry must be sung.

I recently stumbled on a reading of Brown Bear, Brown Bear, What Do You See? and realized that I’d found a kindred spirit.

For older children, I love using more complex stories, such as The Rabbit in the Moon and Diamonds Rubies and Pearls from Storytime Yoga, to build entire classes and encourage children to write their own yoga class stories. We use the opportunity to talk about what makes a good story and who is and what are the attributes of a hero.

While reading them could simply help children relax, books like

make nice discussion starters.

reading to a camp groupOlder children and tweens are defining themselves and are often eager to discuss issues related to their place and possible contribution to the world. Story books can help set a safe context for such a discussion.

Breathing Space Family Yoga has collected many of our favorite kids yoga books, story books and other resources in one place with links to We’ll keep adding to it, so please let us know what’s missing in the comments.